Nieuwe druktechniek

22 January 2011 § Leave a comment

De Volkskrant is in haar bijlages overgegaan op een nieuwe reproductietechniek.

Voor het eerst sinds lange tijd worden er geen rastercliché’s meer gebruikt.

Ik denk dat dit van ‘picture to plate’ heet. De digitale foto wordt meteen als puntjes op de plaat gezet. Meer info volgt.

Jip

Stipple engraving

20 December 2010 § Leave a comment

Stipple engraving is a form of intaglio printing where an image is build up out of stipples. The term ‘stipple engraving’ mostly refers to the technique ‘developed’ in England in the 1760’s by William Wynne Ryland and Francesco Bartolozzi (and Italian active in England), but was around much longer. While the ‘dotted manner’ was used as early as the regular engraving, it was only used as part of line engravings. But there are few exceptions like the Dutch goldsmith Jan Lutma junior who made engravings ‘opus mallei’, using only an awl, which made a much clearer dot then a burin.

With the exception of Jan Lutma, advanced stipple engravings didn’t exist until the second half of the eighteenth century when it developed from the crayon manner and the use of a combination of etching and engraving techniques. The stipple engraving became very popular in England, especially in combination with coloring 1a la poupée, but the technique didn’t receive much following in the rest of the world.

literature:

SALAMAN, M.C. The old engravers of England in their relation to contemporary life and art (1540-1800). London, Paris, New York and Melbourne: Cassel and Company, 1906. pp. 203-218.

HARVEY, F. ‘Stipple engravings as practised in England’. In: Print Collector’s Quarterly 17 (1930). pp. 48-71.

LINDEN, F. van der. Grafische technieken. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1970. pp. 118-119.

GASCOIGNE, B. How to identify prints. A complete guide tot manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to inkjet. High Holborn: Thames & Hudson, 2004. 14b.

JV

Photo-lithography

20 December 2010 § Leave a comment

With the emergence of lithography and photography in the early nineteenth century, experiments to combine both techniques began in the second half of the century.
A photograph could be made of any ordinary drawing or document and light-sensitive gelatine could be exposed to light trough the negative. The gelatine would harden according the negative and could then be inked and transferred to stone. It was also used with exposed albumine directly on the stone, afterward the stone was inked and only the hardened parts absorbed the ink. Both methods made it very easy to make reproductions of existing prints, drawings and manuscripts and it’s nearly impossible to separate a lithographically from a drawing on transfer paper.
At first only pure black and white where possible, but in the 1880’s it became possible to achieve tonal effects trough cracks in the gelatine. With these so called ink-photo’s, instead of printing it directly from the gelatine as a collotype, it was transferred to stone, losing some of the colloptype quality but with the advantage of the speed and low costs of lithography.

literature:

KRÜGER, O. Die lithographischen verfahren und der offset-druck. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1926. pp. 22-77.

WALLIS, A brief history of photographic reproduction processes (up to 1939). Photography’s coming of age. Collotype. Photo-lithography. Lithoprinter 5 (1962): 653-654, 733-737; 6 (1963): 67-70, 105-108.

LINDEN, F. van der. Grafische technieken. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1970. pp. 197-201.

TWYMAN, M. Breaking the mould: the first hundred years of lithography. London: British Library, 2001.

GASCOIGNE, B. How to identify prints. A complete guide tot manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to inkjet. High Holborn: Thames & Hudson, 2004. 41.

JV

Anastatic print

15 December 2010 § Leave a comment

De Nederlandse term voor deze techniek is anastatische druk. Ontleend van het Griekse woord ‘anastatis’ dat ‘herrijzenis’ betekent.

Anastatische druk van een tekening van John Johnson. Gedrukt door R Appel´s anastatische drukpers

Deze illustratietechniek valt onder de manuele vlakdruk. Met de anastatische druk kunnen oude prenten gereproduceerd worden. Het doel is om de prenten te verveelvoudigen op lithografisch steen of metaal. Binnen de anastatische druk kan een onderscheid gemaakt worden op basis van de oude prenten en hun nieuwe afdrukken. Er zijn drie groepen te onderscheiden:
                1) De druk die moet worden overgedragen behoudt dezelfde kleur als de oude prent
                2) Het origineel wordt voorzien van nieuwe kleuren
                3) Al het overige dat gebeurt met de druk

 De prent wordt in verdund zwavelzuur gedoopt en vervolgens met stijfsel bestreken. De drukinkt van de oude prent neemt het zwavelzuur en het stijfsel niet op, terwijl het onbedrukte gedeelte van het papier dat wel doet. Vervolgens worden watten gedrenkt in een mengsel van terpentine en schapenvet en daarmee wordt de prent bestreken. Het gedeelte dat droog gebleven is (dus het gedeelte op de oude prent dat bedrukt is) neemt het vet en de terpentine op. Vervolgens wordt het beeld in de pers op een gladde steen overgezet. Oudere drukken van bijvoorbeeld een houtsnede kunnen zo dus op steen worden overgezet.

Uitvinding
Rond 1870 vond P. van de Weijer deze reproductiemethode uit om oude prenten van Dürers houtsneden te reproduceren. De uitvinding wordt ook wel toegeschreven aan de Duitser R. Appel en Senefelder had over een soortgelijke druktechniek geschreven. Dit was echter niet precies dezelfde druktechniek als de anastatische druk.

Literatuur
Albert, August. Technischer Führer durch die Reproduktions-Verfahren und deren Bezeichnungen. Halle a. S.: Verlag von Wilhelm Knapp 1908.

Gascoigne, Bamber. How to identify prints. A complete guide tot manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to inkjet. High Holborn: Thames & Hudson 1986.

Linden, Fons van der. Grafische technieken. De Bilt: Cantecleer 1970, p. 178.

Typography

15 December 2010 § Leave a comment

De Nederlandse term voor deze druktechniek is typografie. Typografie is een manier van grafisch vormgeven en valt (meestal) onder de hoogdruktechnieken, maar tegenwoordig kan men ook gebruikmaken van diep- of vlakdruktechnieken. Grafische vormgeving heeft als bouwstoffen letters, cijfers en afbeeldingen. Typografische vormgeving bestaat dan uitsluitend uit letters en cijfers. Met deze bouwstoffen kan men een boodschap maken. Een goede typograaf zorgt ervoor dat een boodschap optimaal wordt overgebracht. In eerste instantie is het boek de belangrijkste drager voor typografie, maar naast papier kan men tegenwoordig ook boodschappen overbrengen op bijvoorbeeld film of computer.
            Stanley Morison (1889 – 1967) maakte een definitie voor typografie: ‘Typografie zou men kunnen definiëren als de kunst drukmateriaal zodanig te schikken, dat dit in overeenstemming is met een specifiek doel: de letters onderling te schikken, het wit te verdelen en het zetsel te ordenen om de lezer in de hoogst mogelijke mate behulpzaam te zijn bij het begrijpen van de tekst. Typografie is een zakelijk middel tot een vooral nuttig en slechts bij toeval esthetisch doel, want het genieten van fraaie figuren is zelden het voornaamste oogmerk van de lezer.’(Uit: Ton Bolder e.a. 1990, p. 14). De meningen zijn echter verdeeld of typografie inderdaad een zakelijk middel is en zelden een esthetisch doel dient. « Read the rest of this entry »

Baxterotype

14 December 2010 § Leave a comment

Dutch: Baxterotypie

The term comes from the English printer and artist George Baxter (1804-1867). George Baxter is famous for having developed a method of printing in full colour. In total he made 377 prints. Only 15 of these were, including his prints of the Cartoons, so-called Baxterotypes. They were printed in shades of brown and aimed to simulate photographs. He first published some in the 1850s. The name echoes the term Daguerreotype, the earliest photographic process. Daguerreotype was named after Daguerre and so Baxter deemed it proper that his printing technique carried his name. He used it for chiaroscuro prints that he made with an intaglio key plate and sepia tone from a single wood block. So it was a combination of intaglio and relief printing.

Baxter’s career wasn’t going all that well. The Frenchmen Daguerre was making a name for himself with his photographs in sepia, the aforementioned daguerreotype. To counter this Baxter produced his baxterotype prints. He evidently decided that religious studies would be the most appropriate subjects for this medium and published his baxterotype of the famous Raphael cartoons. Of course when seeking a subject for his religious baxterotypes, it didn’t hurt that Prince Albert had become personally engaged in the study of Raphael and his works.

The Crucifixion, 1855

Baxter says in an advertisement: “This process possesses great advantage over, photography or collotype, in the certainty of each copy being equal in quality, every one of them being a complete facsimile of the first impression.” None of the baxterotypes were printed by Baxter in colours. The Raphael cartoons often seen in this way are by other printers.

The difference between a baxterotype and a sepia print is that whilst the former were sold in sepia only and never in colours, the latter were sold both in sepia and colours.

Stannard, who lived in the same century, explains that baxterotype  in not an invention but rather an adaptation of the Baxter process, and is not a bad imitation of a class of photographs which it is designed to imitate. It is analogue to the Baxter process with this exception, that in place of printing a variety of “colours” from wood blocks; he only prints a few shades of a definite “tint”, afterwards completing with a copper-plate in aquatint etc. The print is afterwards varnished, and when mounted bears the above title.

Explanation of Baxter Process:

Baxter wanted to improve the art of block printing when the possibility of combining the use of metals, such as brass or zinc, occurred to him (as indeed they had been used in Bologna as early as 1540 for chiaro-scuro). And thus he printed all the local colours from separate blocks, by crossing and recrossing their tints, fixing the whole by a final impress in aquatint, stipple, mezzotint etc. from copper or steel plates, in some dark neutral colour. He would touch up some minor details by the hand of colourers.

Primary Sources:

Stannard, William John. The Art Exemplar: A Guide to Distinguish one Print from Another. 1859. Microfilm.

Secondary Sources:

Courtney, Charles Thomas. George Baxter, the Picture Printer. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1924.

Gascoigne, B. How to identify prints: a complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to inkjet. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Mitzman, Max E. George Baxter and the Baxter Prints. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1978.

Woodburytype

14 December 2010 § Leave a comment

Dutch: Woodburytypie

The term Woodburytype comes from the English pioneering photographer W.B. Woodbury (1834-1885). From an early age Walter Bentley was fascinated by the principles of photography. His first camera was home-made, constructed out “of stout millboard, bound together at the joints with strong black tape.”

Woodburytype refers to both the print made in this manner as well as the photomechanical process. It was developed around 1860. It was especially popular between 1875 and 1900. It only lasted a couple of decades since cheaper and easier techniques came into being quickly. The process required much expensive equipment and Woodbury was trying to develop a simpler version called stannotype when he died from an overdose of laudanum in 1885.

Old Furniture, 1877-78 by John Thomson (11 x 9cm)

The process involved exposing a gelatin film that had been fixed on a glassplate. Between the lightsource and the gelatin, a photographic negative was placed. The more transparent the negative, the harder the gelatin would become. After, the gelatin that hadn’t hardened would be washed off. The relief that was left would be pressed into a sheet of soft lead. In turn, coloured gelatin was poured over the metalrelief. A sheet of paper was then pressed against it. The excess gelatin would drip away on the side while the remaining gelatin attached itself onto the paper. The thickness of this layer corresponded to the depth of the relief. This meant that you ended up with differences in the intensity of the colour.

In appearance they are very like carbon prints, having the same high tonal qualities, due to their photo-relief manufacture, and the same disadvantage of having to be pasted in. Woodburytypes had more prominent image relief than carbon prints and were  usually small, never larger than 11 by 14 inches. Most of them were produced as book illustrations. They have a tendency for large cracks to appear in the shadow areas.

As far as the colouring matter goes, commercial operators used various pigments to produce a range of colours, mainly dark blues and dark browns, but occasionally terra cotta. It was most popular in the 1870s. It is fairly simple to distinguish a Woodburytype from a pasted-in photograph, for the latter is more likely to be found in a book published before 1868. The surface is never absolutely smooth, you can sometimes see the variation in thickness. Furthermore, Woodburytypes never faded round the edges as most photographs of this period did. On the print it may say Woodbury or photoglyptie and it has a high gloss surface. You can also look for a grain pattern since they do not have a grain pattern like all other mechanical prints. There might also be ridges where very light areas and shadow come together and there might be loss of surface gloss in extreme hightlights.

No Dutch firm used the Woodburytype technique. Probably because the investment costs were too high. But it has been used in Dutch books. They were, e.g., made by Goupil or Lemercier in Paris. A well-known work containing Woodburytypes is Onze Hedendaagsche Schilders (The Hague, 1881).

Primary Sources:

Wood, Henry Trueman Wright. Modern Methods of Illustrating Books. London: Elliot Stock, 1886.

Secondary Sources:

Berret, Oliver. A History of the Woodburytype. Nevada City: Carl Mautz, 2007.

Gascoigne, B. How to identify prints: a complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to inkjet. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.

Linden, Fons van der. De Grafische Technieken. De Bilt: Cantecleer, 1979.

Reilly, James M. Care and Identification of 19th Century Photographic Prints. Rochester: Eastman Kodak Co., 1986.

Stijnman, Ad et al. De Techniek van de Nederlandse Boekillustratie in de 19e Eeuw. Amstelveen: Koninklijk Verbond van Grafische Ondernemingen, 1995.

Wachlin, Steven. Woodbury & Page. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994.

Wakeman, Geoffrey. Victorian Book Illustration. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1973.

Zoete, Johan de. Zomaar een Plaatje? Arnhem: Coördinatiecommissie Grafische Musea, 1991.